EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY
EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY
Activities of the Communities
BRUSSELS - LUXEMBOURG
Presentation of the General Report for 1972 and programme of the Commission for
(Address by Mr François-Xavier Ortoli, President of the Commission of the
European Communities, to the European Parliament on 13 February 1973)
1972, crucial year XI
Gradual emergence of a European identity XII
Definition of Europe's place in the world XIII
Setting Europe on the road to irreversible union XVII
Concern for the human element and desire for participation XXVI
An overall process in the light of an overall vision XXXII
1972, CRUCIAL YEAR
1972 was a crucial year, in the fullest sense of the word,
in the Community's development. It was the last year of the
Community of the Six and it saw the establishment of interim
mechanisms and procedures by which the applicant States were
associated with the activities of the Community, so that the
integration of these States which is now taking place could go
forward smoothly. In fact, the Community of the Nine was a
political reality in 1972 before it became a legal reality at the
beginning of 1973.
This political reality of the enlarged Community found
expression at the Conference of Heads of State or Government
held in Paris from 19 to 21 October last. The scope of the action
which the conference envisaged, the variety of spheres which it
opened up to Community jurisdiction, and the vigorous stimulus
which it gave to the Community institutions, are a measure of
its success. That success was to a large extent the result of the
serious manner in which the Conference was prepared and of
the political will so strongly expressed; but it was also attributable
to the advances made in various fields during the preceding
GRADUAL EMERGENCE OF A EUROPEAN IDENTITY
The intentions and the commitments set out in the Final
Communiqué of the Summit Conference must now be turned
into official acts—or rather into actions. Ever-present in the
minds of those taking part in the Conference was a concern
to establish a European identity. In this, they were expressing
a heartfelt desire, shared by all our peoples, to differentiate
ourselves from the rest of the world, not only to play our own
role in the world and thus take Europe's destiny into our own
hands, but also to formulate and implement the plan for a
civilisation which, to quote Léon Blum, would again be human.
If a European identity is to emerge, Europe's place in the
world must first be defined. Then Europe must be given a
form of organisation, a structure which, through the interplay
of economic, monetary, social, industrial, regional and other
policies, would put it on the road towards irreversible union.
Finally, all our actions must be guided by human concern and
a willingness to participate, precisely because today the main
lines of a new civilisation need to be laid down.
But before discussing these three points, I must tell you
how fully, in its first months of operations, the New Commission
has taken the measure of the task before it and the
limited time available, and thus realised that if the work is to
be done properly and punctually we have to get organised.
This is why we were determined to lose no time in allocating
responsibilities among the members of the Commission, drawing
up timetables and establishing working methods which would
ensure consistency and speed.
In doing this we took particular care to retain and develop
the collegiate nature of our work. We shall make a systematic
effort to ensure that the need for speed, and the need to allocate
duties in the preparatory work to those who can best fulfil
them, will in no way detract from our collegiate responsibility,
which is growing stronger despite differences of temperament
or opinion. We all have the same conception of our task, and
share a common team spirit.
Definition of Europe's place in the world
As regards external relations, in the next few months the
enlarged Community will have to assume responsibilities
commensurate with its weight in the world.
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The role played by the Six vis-à-vis the outside world was
already a proof of the 'European presence'.
But enlargement, the will to build up the Europe of the
Nine as expressed in the Declaration of the Paris Summit, the
awareness throughout the world of what we represent, give a
new economic and—let us face the fact—political dimension
to the definition and conduct of the Community's international
relations. This comes at a time when the facts of international
political and economic relations to which we have been accustomed
since the end of the Second World War are undergoing
profound changes. The Community itself is, of its very nature,
a dynamic force and this, together with the Community achievements
which cement together the Europe of the Nine, should
enable it to make an original contribution, through dialogue
and negotiation, to the establishment of a new international
Concern for the human element and desire for participation
To speak of a Europe which will serve mankind is first and
foremost to seek to put into effect a broad-based social policy
and play an active part in protecting and improving the environment.
But it also means setting out to make our peoples
participate, directly and indirectly, in the work of building
The Heads of State and Government reminded us that
vigorous action in the social field cannot be dissociated from
the realisation of Economic and Monetary Union. They also
asked the institutions of the Community to draw up a programme
of action in the social field by 1 January 1974, having consulted
both sides of industry.
We shall therefore be stepping up our activities in the
fields of employment and living and working conditions.
I also measure how difficult it is, with so many programmes,
dates, technical details, to make our peoples understand vital
importance for each citizen of work which sometimes lacks
lustre. Alas, very often the impression people have of our joint
endeavours is not one of imagination, boldness or political will,
ever though they are the underlying inspiration. It is here that
the need arises to associate the peoples of Europe in building
ENLARGEMENT AND AGREEMENTS WITH
THE NON-ACCEDING EFTA COUNTRIES
1. Entry into force of the accession treaties
Ratification of the Acts of Accession
6. Ratification took place during 1972 of the acts relating to the accession to
the European Communities of the Kingdom of Denmark, Ireland and the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which were signed at
Brussels on 22 January 1972.1
The Norwegian Government, which had originally signed the acts on
22 January informed the President of the Council on 9 October that following
the unfavourable result of the advisory referendum held on 25 September 1972
(53.49% against and 46.51% in favour) it would not bring the Ratification
Bill before the Norwegian Parliament.
The Community of Six
7. In Germany the Ratification Bill was adopted unanimously by the Bundestag
on 21 May 1972 and by the Bundesrat on 7 July 1972. The vote in the
Belgian Chamber took place on 7 December 1972 (164 in favour and 5 against
(communists)) and in the Senate on 29 June 1972 (138 in favour, one abstention).
In France the referendum on 21 April 1972 (67.86% in favour, 32.14%
against) concluded the ratification procedure. In Italy the Chamber gave final
approval to the acts on 6 December and the Senate on Tuesday 19 December.
In Luxembourg the Parliament ratified the Acts of Accession on 17 October
1972 (fifty deputies voted for the ratification and six (Communists) against).
In the Netherlands the Second Chamber adopted the Ratification Bill on
1 For the signature of the Treaties of Accession see the Fifth General Report: Introduction
and Chapter II.
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18 ENLARGEMENT AND AGREEMENTS WITH THE NON-ACCEDING EFTA COUNTRIES
14 September 1972 (unanimously apart from the Communists, the Socialistpacifists
and one other member). The first Chamber voted unanimously in
favour on 14 November except for the three Communist Senators.
8. In Denmark the Queen signed the draft Treaty on 11 October 1972 after
the favourable result of the referendum which had taken place on 2 October
(63.5% in favour, 36.5 against). The results of the referendum of 10 May 1972
on the amendments to the Irish Constitution necessary for Ireland's accession
to the Communities were as follows: 83.1% in favour, 16.9% against.
In the United Kingdom the House of Commons gave the Bill a third
reading on 14 July 1972; the House of Lords did likewise on 20 September 1972.
The Royal Assent declared to Parliament on 16 October concluded the ratification
9. The "Procedure for the adoption of certain Decisions and new Measures
to be taken during the period preceding Accession" annexed to the Final
Act of this Negotiating Conference stipulated that as soon as preparatory
work at Community level, with a view to the adoption of decisions by the Council,
had produced common guidelines enabling consultations to be usefully
arranged, such consultations should be held if an acceding State should make a
reasoned request for them.
In practice the acceding States have requested consultations on a number
of subjects, for example economic and monetary union, fixing of agricultural
prices, guidelines for the negotiations with the EFTA Member States and
Associates which had not applied for membership and with certain countries
of the Mediterranean Basin, and directives relating to the approximation of
the Member States' legislation. The consultations took place within an Interim
Committee composed of representatives of the Communities and of the acceding
States. The Commission, which took part in the Committee's work, played an
active role in the development of this procedure by using its right of initiative to
take into account the existing position and to assess the different situations
which will arise in the enlarged Community.
Further, the representatives of the acceding States were associated as
observers, side by side with the representatives of the present Member States,
with the work on the negotiation of agreements with the EFTA countries which
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ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE ACCESSION TREATIES 19
have not applied for membership of the Communities, and also the negotiation
of certain amendments to the preferential agreements concluded under the
Treaties establishing the European Communities—for example the agreements
concluded with certain countries in the Mediterranean Basin—and certain nonpreferential
agreements concluded by the Community which remain in force
after 1 January 1973.
10. As regards the Commission, any of its proposals and communications
which could lead to decisions by the Council were made known to the acceding
States as soon as they had been forwarded to the Council. Moreover when
drawing up its proposals or communications the Commission took all the
necessary factors into account to judge the effects of those proposals in the
light of the enlargement of the Community.
Moreover so as to ensure that its own desisions take due account of the
interests of the acceding States, the Commission has consulted them before
adopting any decision which might affect them as future members of the
In the light of the experience gained since 22 January last, the procedure
laid down by the Conference may be said to have functioned to the satisfaction
of all concerned. Moreover, it has given the acceding States the opportunity
to become familiar gradually with the working of the Community's institutions.
In this context it must be emphasized that since the beginning of October 1972
the acceding States have taken part as observers in the meetings of certain
institutional organs (e.g. special agriculture committee, agricultural management
committees, customs committees, and Monetary Committee since
24 March 1972).
Adaptation of the acts of the Institutions
11. In accordance with Article 30 of the Act of Accession adaptations of the
acts listed in Annex II to that Act were drawn up in conformity with the guidelines
specified therein and according to the procedure and in the manner
stipulated in Article 153 of the Act of Accession.
Applicability of the acts of the Institutions
12. Article 155 of the Act of Accession stipulates that the texts of the acts of
the institutions of the Communities adopted before accession and drawn up
by the Council or the Commission in the English and Danish languages shall,
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2 0 ENLARGEMENT AND AGREEMENTS WITH THE NON-ACCEDING EFTA COUNTRIES
from the date of accession, be authentic under the same conditions as the texts
drawn up in the original four languages.
The Commission has therefore translated the texts in question, or revised
them, in collaboration with the British and Danish authorities and the Secretariat
of the Council.
Adjustment of the instruments upon non-accession by Norway
13. The Council of the enlarged Community adopted on 1 January 1973 a
decision adjusting the instruments concerning the accession of new Member
States to the Communities because Norway had not deposited its instruments
of accession and had not become a member of the Communities. The main
adjustments, apart from certain specific references to the Kingdom of Norway
being declared non-applicable by this decision, are the following:
(a) The Council is composed of nine members, one for each country.
(b) Qualified majority with weighting of votes:
The votes of the members of the Council are weighted as follows: Germany
10, France 10, Italy 10, United Kingdom 10, Belgium 5, Netherlands 5,
Denmark 3, Ireland 3, Luxembourg 2, total 58. The qualified majority,
in the case of a decision on a proposal from the Commission, requires
at least 41 votes. If the Council is not acting on a proposal from the
Commission, a decision requires 41 votes expressing the approval of at
least 6 members.
Following another Council decision of 1 January 1973 based on Article 10
of the Treaty establishing a single Council and a single Commission of the
European Communities, the number of members of the Commission is 13.
The number of vice-presidents of the Commission continues to be 5.
The number of the members of the Parliament becomes 198, broken down
Germany 36, France 36, Italy 36, United Kingdom 36, Belgium 14,
Netherlands 14, Denmark 10, Ireland 10, Luxembourg 6.
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ENTRY INTO FORCE OF THE ACCESSION TREATIES 21
Economic and Social Committee
The total number of members of the ESC becomes 144, distributed as
follows: Germany 24, France 24, Italy 24, United Kingdom 24, Belgium 12,
Netherlands 12, Denmark 9, Ireland 9, Luxembourg 6.
Court of Justice
The Court of Justice will be composed of nine Judges and will be assisted
by 4 Advocates-General.
European Investment Bank
The Bank's capital amounts to 2 025 million units of account. For a
qualified majority of the Board of Directors 12 votes are required.
The number of members of Euratom's Scientific and Technical Committee
is to be 27, with 5 members for the United Kingdom, and one each for
Denmark and Ireland. For the other committees set up by Community
secondary legislation, the number of members will be adapted to the
new circumstances of enlargement.
Application of the system of own resources
The financial contributions of the new Member States to the budget of
the Communities will be as follows:
(iii) United Kingdom